This chapter focuses on the modern Europe that is borne out of two massive changes that occurred at the turn of the 18th century: the French Revolution (and its Napoleonic consequences) and the Industrial Revolution. New ideologies emerge as Europe deals with the reckoning of a new industrial class and a conservative backlash against Napoleonic changes and revolutionary ideals. As conservatives try to maintain some semblance of peace and order by conserving the old status quo, liberalism continues to live on in the educated middle class, university students, soldiers, and intellectuals. In the early part of the 19th century, liberals will find allegiance with the growing class of nationalists- people who have had a sense of patriotic pride and fervor awakened by wars, revolution, and years of dynastic conquest. These three ideologies will clash in two major waves of revolution that will strike Europe in 1832 and 1848- and in both cases, the revolts will start in France, and spread outward. Another massive shift will be finalized by the end of these revolutions: the bourgeoisie will no longer be revolutionaries, but rather the ruling class... and will be set to usher Europe in to the new age of mass politics as the franchise is expanded in several states. Through it all, nationalism will be the hallmark sentiment of Europe from this point on to the culminating effects of the clashing ideologies: the World Wars of the 20th century. Keep in mind that nationalism will not hold itself to liberal causes for long; it will soon be claimed by conservatives in Europe who wish to use it as a more practical strategy to preventing revolutions. Meanwhile, a new art movement will be inspired by a rapidly changing Europe as people- namely conservatives, but nationalists as well, will yearn for what appear to be "simpler times" as they romanticize the Europe of old, and Romanticism will express itself in painting, poetry, and literature of the new age.